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LED Chips Explained: Popular Types and Market Trends

2023 03 22 22 12 52

What is an LED chip?

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An LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a solid-state lighting device that uses a semiconductor chip as the light-emitting material.

When a forward voltage is applied to a semiconductor, photons are emitted due to recombination of carriers in the semiconductor, thereby producing light.

The basic structure of an LED is a piece of electroluminescent semiconductor material attached to a lead frame surrounded by wires, with epoxy protecting the internal core wires, giving the LED excellent impact resistance.

sealed with For the lamp, the LED chip is the heart of the lamp and the most important part of the LED lamp. A stable LED chip ensures lamp performance and durability.

The basic structure of an LED chip

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Despite its small size, the LED chip has a very complex structure. The LED chip structure consists of five main parts: the chip, the chip holder, the plastic resin, the phosphor, and the power wire.

The chip is the core part of the entire LED chip and has an important impact on the quality of the emitted light. Different chip materials are used to achieve different light durability and colors.

The chip holder serves as a support to fix the chip and also helps to dissipate heat from the chip to the external environment.

The resin is a material that helps the chip to dissipate heat better. Currently, there are two types of resin available: silicone resin and epoxy resin. Silicone resin has better heat dissipation but is more expensive. Epoxy resin has lower heat dissipation but is cheaper and can help emit more yellow light.

The phosphor is combined with the semiconductor material to guide the color of the light emitted by the LED chip.

The conductor is the part that connects the power to the chip pins. Most conductors in LEDs are made of gold and are very small in size. Due to the properties of gold, it can conduct and dissipate heat very well.

Some popular types of LED chips on the market

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  • DIP LED chip: This is the first generation of LED chip types. Due to the technology at that time, it had many disadvantages such as small capacity and low durability. Therefore, this type of LED chip is gradually being replaced by other types on the market.
  • SMD LED chip: SMD stands for Surface Mount Device. This is a new chip series with many improvements compared to old chips. There are many versions of the same SMD LED chip available on the market, ranging from small to large capacity. In addition, this type of LED chip has a wide range of colors.
  • COB LED chip: COB stands for Chip On Board, which is a type of LED chip that uses modern packaging technology. This type of LED chip is made up of many small LED chips. Therefore, the chip has a very high luminous flux and is generally used for high-end places and industrial lighting. However, the disadvantage of this chip is that it only emits monochrome light and cannot change color.

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